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Steel Structure Building Solutions

PTH factory building structure is mainly composed of horizontal structure and vertical structure. Horizontal structure system is bent (including roof truss, beam and column) as the basic bearing structure, to bear the roof under load, horizontal wind load, earthquake action, the vertical load and horizontal level of crane load. Between the longitudinal structure system is made up of column, column support beams, walls, etc. In addition, there are houses, walls and roof support, to form a space rigid frame.
Compared with traditional steel structure, light steel structure has bellowing advantages:
1.Reduce construction cost:
Since light steel structure self-weight is lower than traditional steels, plus adopting light weight roofing system, the whole construction material quantity can be saved, thus reduce the overall construction cost. 
2.High speed of construction:
As modular house, most parts are prefabricated within factory, thus, on-site assembling and construction, reduced 20% to 40% time in construction period.
3.Reduce site management costs:
Site management costs can be reduced by 20% to 30% which can lead to a 3 % to 4% saving in terms of overall building cost Site management costs are reduced because of the shorter construction period.
4.Less pollution for environment:
Less or no pollution to air, also less or no construction trash at all.Shorter construction period will reduce the inconvenience effect to residence people nearby.
5.Multi-function buildings:
The light weight nature of the steel structure decides that, it can have more function choices like: long span steel construction at the podium level;extreme environment building which requires wind load/snow load/seismic resistant, etc.
A complete steel structure warehouses and factories is composed of several different functional systems, mainly including: structure system(including main structure, roof and purlin system, wall and beam system),maintenance system ( including roof panel, wall panel, covering and floor deck), door and window system(including door and window), ventilating system (including clerestory system and ventilators), drainage system (including gutter, rain-spout and awning),etc.

1.Structure System

(1)Main materials: Chinese national standard steel Q235 and Q345; Shaping method can be divided into Hot Rolled Steel and Welding Steel; Anti-rust of Painting and Galvanization are two main ways for the anti-rust treatment of steel structure. For large steel fittings we recommend to use paintings, while small fittings and cold formed steel are recommended to galvanize.
Also fire-proof coating should be painted on the steel structure according to local requirements.
(2) Roof purlins and wall beams: Use cold formed steel, the structure form can be divided into C shape simple beam mode and Z shape consecutive beam mode.
a. Use rigid support with section size L40*2, and set round steel braces on the eaves and ridge. 
b. Connecting materials are:

2.Maintenance System

The maintenance system for steel structure ware house mainly use colored steel sheets or sandwich panels. For the pressed steel floor deck system, we use glass wool as the heat insulating material. For lighting, PVC lighting boards are needed.
(1)Single layer colored steel sheet

Base board: AZ galvanized board with thickness of 0.30mm,0.45mm or 0.50mm. Great anti-rust performance and can suffer terrible weather.
Coating: PE coating--Good adhesive force and fits for many conditions with medium performance in resisting chemicals,
life span is 7-10 years.

SMP coating--Good rigidity, abrasive resistance, heat resistance and durability. Its luster and flexibility is limited,
and the life span is 10-15 years.

HDP coating--Excellent in ultraviolet radiation resistance, lasts 10-12 years.
PVDF coating--Great in shaping, durable and anti-solvent performance, but limited in color options and the cost is also high.
Life span is 20-25 years.
(2)Glass fiber wool

The volumetric weight of our commonly used glass wool is 12K, and it has great insulating, sound-absorbing and anti-corrosive performance with fire resistance rating A1, and low moisture absorption.
 
Volumetric weight
(kg/m3)
Thickness
(mm)
Width
(m)
Thermal conductivity
W/(m.K)
Thermal resistance
(m2.K)/W
12 50 1.2 0.043 1.16
12 75 1.2 0.043 1.74
12 100 1.2 0.043 2.33
 
(3)Colored steel sheet sandwich panel

Sandwich panel is made of two steel sheets and macro-molecule middle insulating layer, normal thickness 50,75, 100mm. With thickness of 0.45/0.50mm. Being divided into four kinds according to material middle layer: EPS / XPS / PU / Rock wool.
 
Name EPS XPS PU RW
Thickness 50/75/100 50/75/100 50/75/100 50/80/100
Density(kg/m3) ≧18 ≧35 ≧38 ≧100
Thermal conductivityW/(m2.K) 0.68 0.63 0.45 0.85
Heat conductivityW/(m.K) ≦0.041 ≦0.03 ≦0.024 ≦0.040
Oxygen index % 30 30 28 32
Burning performance B2 B2 B1 A
Fire limitation - - - ≧30min
Water absorption rate 6 2 3 5
Compressive strength 120kpa 200kpa 150kpa -
Sticking ability 0.1Mpa 0.1Mpa 0.1Mpa 0.06Mpa
Yield strength 0.1Mpa 0.1Mpa 0.15Mpa 0.15Mpa
Fissility The area of sticking area shouldn’t be less than 85% on every stripped side.
Bending resistant load For the roof and wall panel, the load should be
no less than 0.5kN/m2
 
(4) Lighting board: PVC lighting board. Great performance in light transmission.
(5) Colored steel sheet covering: folded to function as the treatments for the maintenance system. Mainly used to be water-proofing and better looking. 

3.Door and Window System

(1)Door: normally we have side hang door, sliding door and rolling shutter.
(2) Window: important lighting and ventilating components for warehouses or factories.
normally we have: Aluminum alloy window, Plastic steel window, Sliding window, Side hung window, Awning window, Fixed door, Fenestration, 
single/double Glass window, Blinds, electric and manual window, etc.

4.Ventilating System

For warehouses and factories with large construction area and risk of fire, mechanical ventilators or natural ventilators in the middle of the construction are needed because it’s too deep to extract smokes through the openings of the wall. Normally we have:
(1) Clerestory: its main functions include ventilation, lighting, smoke extraction.
(2)Non-powered turbine ventilator: to achieve the effect of ventilation and smoke extraction by wind. It’s light and easy to install. Stainless material makes it durable. With special bracing structure, it can survive typhoon. It is widely applied and it doesn’t leak.
 

5.Drainage System

(1) Drainage system can be divided into non-organized drainage and organized drainage.

non-organized drainage refers that the rain on the roof falls on the outdoor ground through eaves, and there is no need to set gutter and downspout. organized drainage refers that rain on the roof falls on the gutter and flows to the downspout.
(2)Components of organized drainage system

Gutter: can be divided into steel sheet gutter, steel board gutter and stainless gutter according to its material.
Downspout: PVC downspout and steel board downspout are commonly used.
(3)Awning:

 ① Steel awning: simple shape                    
 ②glass awning: light and lof

6. Transportation of steel fittings

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